An extraordinarily interesting conversation broke out in my last seminar. Usually, I try to keep the conversations short and tight. We have a schedule, and I try to stick to it. But this involved about 10 therapists. And it was brilliant. It went like this...
We were talking about the acute phase after stroke. The acute phase is defined in different ways by different disciplines. For instance doctors will define it one way, therapists another way, radiologists another way, etc. The way that these different disciplines define the phases (from hyperacute to chronic) are important. All those definitions have different valuable uses. (Please note that the second edition of stronger after stroke has all the definitions of all the phases, along with suggestions about how to rehab during those phases.)
In any case, we were talking about the acute phase. I'll paraphrase what I was saying by taking a quote from the book...
"The brain remains in a very delicate state during the acute phase. The neurons of penumbra are especially vulnerable. Consider the studies of animals that have been given a stroke. Animals forced to do too much too soon increase the damage to their brain. In human studies the results of intensive rehab (too much, too soon) has been mixed at best."
The acute therapist then chimed in. They said that often survivors are sent home after their hospital stay. Once home they get a therapist to come to their house. But that kind of therapy, usually called "home therapy," is not generally as aggressive as what survivor would receive from a rehabilitation hospital. Therapists who come to the home don't have many of the tools that they'd have in a therapy gym.
So why are survivors often sent straight home? Managed care demands that they go home if they are not making progress. But if you take my suggestion (too much too soon is a bad thing) survivors won't make much progress, because therapy has to be -- for lack of a better word -- gentle.
The time to make progress is not during the acute phase. (More about how therapy is "upside down" for stroke survivors here.) The time to make progress is during the subacute phase. But if survivors are discharged to home rather than to a rehab hospital, or outpatient therapy, they're not going to get aggressive therapy when they need it: during the subacute phase. Classic Catch-22.
One of the suggestions was that instead of sending people home, from the hospital they be sent to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). But there is a problem with SNFs. It's the "N." N=Nursing. And people hear that and they think "nursing home." And so they refuse. They don't want to go to a nursing home.
But survivors may want to rethink this position. Skilled nursing facilities provide skilled therapy. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy -- it's all there. It allows the survivor to get the most out of the subacute phase. It may also allow them to get good enough to go to a rehabilitation hospital, or an outpatient clinic that's very aggressive.
SNFs can be used as stepping stones to more and better therapy. BUT: If the discussion is "We're going to park you at the nursing home FOREVER" that's not a good thing. SNFs are a nice place to visit, but you may not want to live there (although some are very nice!)
There so many ways that managed care works against the best interest of stroke survivors. This (too much too soon is bad, but if you don't show progress your discharged home) is just one example of how managed care drops the rehab ball.