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The core stabilization exercise consisted of three subparts, bed exercises, wedge exercises, and ball exercises using a Swiss ball. First, the bed exercises without devices consisted of bridge exercise, bridge exercise with legs crossed, bridge exercise with one leg, curl-ups with straight reaching, curl-ups with diagonal reaching, bird dog exercise, and side bridge exercise. Second, the wedge exercises consisted of curl-ups with straight reaching, curl-ups with diagonal reaching, and curl-ups with arms crossed. Finally, the ball exercises consisted of bridge exercise, bridge exercise to the side, bridge- ups, abdominal curl-ups, bird dog exercise, and push-ups.